With a number of spectrum reframing (e.g. 900 MHz spectrum re-farming) being done to free up band for LTE technology use, operators may have to reduce their GSM capacity and may share their GSM networks. As re-farming significantly reduces the set of frequencies allocated to GSM, 3GPP decided to look in to the RAN sharing method and along with supporting companies found that MOCN (Multiple-Operator Core Network) is optimal RAN Sharing method.
The transmission path is an important part of wireless networks. In wide rural areas or in remote areas, operators sometimes face the challenges to deploy networks due to the lack of or cost of fast and reliable backhaul transport network. Statistical data indicate that many calls in a mobile network in these areas are local calls. There is good probability that call between two terminals go via same BTS or in between co-located BTSs or with in same BSC.
Communication devices today are becoming ever more sophisticated and diverse, delivering a plethora of new services and applications. The last hop to the end user, a person or device, is increasingly being delivered wirelessly. This sophistication brings with it complexity, making conventional approaches to organisation, implementation and regulation increasingly inadequate.
Wireless service provides across the globe are aiming to lower the cost for providing data service while meeting the increased demand due to exponential growth in mobile data traffic thanks to popular smartphones. Since few years, Wi-Fi offload had been a preferred choice for operators to balance the IP traffic. However, WiFi offload is not often seamless to end user.
Cellular standards have evolved rapidly in last couple of decades and as of today multiple mobile access technologies exist in operator’s network. Increased demand for low cost mobile broadband connectivity is driving the development of heterogeneous cellular networks.
Wireless sensor technologies have seen as rapid growth in recent years. This rapid technological advances resulted in low cost, light weight, small size and intelligent wireless sensor nodes. These nodes can be strategically placed on the human boday and connected by means of wireless network. This arrangement of wirelessly connected sensor nodes on the human body is known as Wireless Body Area Network (IEEE 802.15.6).